The world is facing several environmental issues, such as deforestation, excessive consumption, and pollution.
Photo by Alex Holt on Unsplash
This led some organizations to come together and paving way to create green solutions to these problems. If you want to build a profitable career in real estate, now is the time to start investing. Investing in property gives investors access to high returns and great flexibility. Learn the basics of investing in property on The Money Show today!
Real estate has always been a safe haven for wealth preservation. It’s also one of the few investments where you can reap high profits without spending much capital upfront. A well-invested home can give you regular dividends through rent or sale in the years ahead.
1. Paving materials (concrete)
Concrete is a basic construction paving material consisting of cement, water, aggregate, and admixture. Cement is a type of hydraulic substance derived from clinker, which consists of limestone and clay. Concrete is widely used across the world. Concrete is considered to be a combination of mortar and aggregate. It is a mixture of sand, gravel, crushed stone, and sometimes other types of mineral aggregates. Aggregates vary in size depending upon the use. Smaller sizes are used where greater surface area is required, whereas larger stones are used for stability. Sand is generally used for its high specific weight, low cost, and ease of handling. In addition to these, Portland cement is added as a binder. Concrete may be set using either chemical hardeners or natural curing. Concrete is not only useful for building structures but is also applied as a road base or sub-base.
Cement concrete aggregate is a term used to describe a type of concrete that contains coarsely ground natural or recycled sand (aggregate). It differs from regular concrete in that the particles of sand and aggregate have been cut down to between 1/8 inch and 2 inches. These smaller particles make the mix easier to work with since they don’t pack together as tightly.
Asphalt is a black sticky bitumenoid petroleum product obtained by heating crude oil in the absence of air. When asphalt is heated, complex molecules combine to create a strong, flexible polymer. Because asphalt is a hydrocarbon, it is flammable. Asphalt is commonly used for road pavement and roofing.
Pavers are paving blocks that are laid horizontally and interlocked. They are often called cobblestone or pavers, although they differ in composition and are not true cobbles. They are produced by hot pressing ceramic slurry to produce bricks that are then stacked.
Bricks are flat rectangular-shaped pieces of fired clay that are bonded together by a binding agent and pressed dry. Common colors are white, red, yellow, and grey. Brick construction is still used today in many buildings around the world. Bricks can be fired after production to give a higher heat resistance. Brick kilns are used to fire brick.
Stone is any naturally occurring solid material composed of one or more minerals. There are several different varieties of stone including granite, marble, quartz, limestone, slate, travertine, soapstone, and soapstone. Different kinds of stone have various properties such as hardness, color, hardness, durability, density, etc.
Gravel is small stones that are used as aggregate components of a concrete mixture. It’s the smallest particle size category of aggregate that is mixed with cement to produce concrete. Gravel is used for landscaping purposes.
Types of Paving
Concrete is considered the most popular paving material. Concrete is manufactured using cement, aggregate (sand, gravel, etc.), water, and sand. Aggregate particles serve as a base that holds the concrete together while the cement binds them together to create a solid mass. A reinforcing wire mesh is then embedded in the concrete to increase its durability. Cement is mixed with water and allowed to harden before being poured over the aggregate. When the mixture cures, the concrete forms a rigid, structural slab suitable for paving roads. There are many types of concrete, including hollow-core, cellular, precast, stamped concrete, and low-slump concrete. Concrete generally costs less than asphalt and offers greater durability. However, concrete requires constant maintenance to ensure its longevity.
Asphalt is the second most commonly used pavement material. It is a bit harder to maintain than concrete but does not require any special equipment to install. Before applying the hot mix asphalt, the area is compacted to provide a smooth surface. Compaction creates a denser structure that provides improved traction and reduces ruts caused by traffic. Once the asphalt has been applied, it begins to cool immediately. After the initial cooling period, the asphalt becomes workable again. In general, asphalt lasts longer than concrete and is cheaper than concrete. It is often installed over existing concrete, but can also be overlaid on top of a sub-base.
3. Bituminous Tarmac
Bituminous tarmac is the third most common type of pavement in use today. Like asphalt, bituminous tarmac consists of two ingredients: a binder and an aggregate. However, instead of using oil-based binders, bituminous tarmacs use coal tar pitch as a binder. Coal tar pitch is heated and melted to make the asphalt. An aggregate is added to help control the consistency of the asphalt and add stability. While asphalt is still the cheapest option available, it tends to crack and peel away from the roadbed over time. That’s where coal tar pitch comes in handy—it doesn’t crack as easily as asphalt and makes a stronger bond between the pavement and the sub-base. Because it is more expensive than asphalt, bituminous tar is only used in extreme conditions where asphalt would fail.
4. Polymerized Rubber
Polymerized rubber is yet another alternative to asphalt. Unlike asphalt, polymerized rubber uses natural rubber latex. Natural rubber is combined with synthetic resins, fillers, and additives to produce a highly durable and flexible substance. Similar to asphalt, polymerized rubber is cheap and easy to apply. It also maintains good performance even at temperatures below freezing. Unfortunately, the material also deteriorates after long exposure to sunlight. It may last as long as 30 years indoors, but only 12 months outside.
5. Synthetic Granules
Synthetic granule paving materials are similar to polymerized rubber. They consist of a variety of inert substances, including asphalt, aggregate, and filler. These granules are often placed directly onto a sub-base rather than the ground. Synthetic granules offer the same advantages as polymerized rubber, and unlike asphalt, they do not burn. They also tend to last longer than both asphalt and polymerized rubber.