How does a Centrifugal Pump Work?

What is a Centrifugal Pump?

Generally speaking, a centrifugal pump is mechanical equipment that pumps fluids by transforming the mechanical power (rotational energy) of the fluid flow into the pressure energy of the fluid flow.

Prakashpump, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The electric motor or engine is often responsible for supplying this mechanical power. They are often called motor-pump. A centrifugal pump pumps fluids by utilizing the centrifugal force of the pump. As a result, it is referred to as a centrifugal pump. They are also used as submersible pumps

MokeryJ. Vectorized by Magasjukur2, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Fluids are moved from low-pressure to high-pressure locations using this form of hydraulic equipment, which is used in a broad multitude of sectors and in many common products to accomplish this. Pumping fluid or water from one point to another is accomplished through the employment of an impeller. A centrifugal pump was invented in 1475 by engineer Francesco Di Giorgio Martini, who intended it to be used as a mud lifter mechanism.

Working Principle of Centrifugal Pump

Based on the fundamental principle of angular momentum, which states that any change in the angular momentum of an object rotating is equal to the applied force, the centrifugal pump operates in the same manner.

It depicts the fact that when a given quantity of fluid spins as a result of an external force (such as an electrical motor or a turbine), a centrifugal force is exerted on the fluid, which further turns the fluid speed into pressure. A portion of this energy is converted into the kinetic energy of the fluids.


Working of Centrifugal Pump

  • For starters, an electric motor or engine provides mechanical power to the pump impeller, which is then turned by the motor or engine. With the help of a shaft, the impeller is connected directly to the electric motor and moves in tandem with its rotational motion.
  • When the impeller begins to rotate, a vacuum is created inside the impeller’s eye, which causes the impeller to spin faster. As a result of the vacuum created, water begins to enter the eye in an axial direction.
  • As the water enters the eye, it impacts the impeller’s blades, which causes the impeller to spin. With the aid of centrifugal force, the impeller turns the water in both a radial and axial outward direction. This impeller keeps the water moving until it has passed through all of the components of the pump and is discharged.
  • The impeller blades transform the kinetic energy of the water into its speed, hence increasing the speed of the flow of water in the pipeline.
  • Following its passage through the impeller, the water reaches the diffuser section of the pump. The water is slowed down by this diffuser, which reduces its speed. Pressure energy is created by converting the speed of the water into pressure energy. Following the establishment of the required pressure, the water is discharged through the pump outlet, causing it to be transferred to the desired place.

In this way, a centrifugal pump increases the pressure while also pumping the various fluids through it.

In layman’s terms, when a centrifugal pump is used, fluid or water is forced to rise to a given height as a result of the centrifugal force acting on the fluids or water in question. As a result, this pump is referred to as a centrifugal pump. And this sums up the basic operation of the centrifugal pump in its entirety. 


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